PoP Consensus & Bitcoin Finality

📜 TL;DR:

  • In Proof-of-Proof (PoP) consensus, a PoP miner periodically publishes proof of the Hemi Network’s state to the Bitcoin blockchain.

  • By building on Bitcoin, PoP consensus inherits the security and finality of Bitcoin’s consensus.

  • After six Bitcoin blocks, PoP consensus reaches a state of superfinality, where the security of the Hemi Network exceeds that of Bitcoin.

🌐 Overview

  • Proof-of-Proof (PoP) is the Hemi Network’s additive consensus protocol, building on Bitcoin’s consensus for superior security. PoP miners publish cryptographic network-state proofs to the Bitcoin blockchain, protecting Hemi consensus with Bitcoin's proof of work.

  • Hemi blocks achieve finality typically nine blocks (approximately an hour and a half) after their proofs are published to Bitcoin.

⏱️ Finality Delay in the Hemi Network

  • The Hemi Network accounts for fluctuations in Bitcoin's transaction fees and block timings, recognizing that network-state proofs might not appear in every block.

  • To manage this variability, a finality delay of nine Bitcoin blocks is implemented.

If no competing fork publishes proofs to Bitcoin during this period, the network assumes finality, requiring a

51% attack on both the Hemi and Bitcoin networks

to alter this.

👀 Sneak Peek WIP

♾️ Superfinality: A New Benchmark in Blockchain Security

Upon reaching this finality, the Hemi Network attains a state of 'superfinality,' where its chain state's security surpasses Bitcoin's.


This is achieved by combining Bitcoin’s Proof-of-Work consensus with Hemi’s Proof-of-Stake. After superfinality, altering the Hemi Network’s state proof would be economically infeasible even for nation-states. An attacker would need so simultaneously 51% attack Bitcoin and Hemi, which is even harder than attacking Bitcoin itself.

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